Simon Rubottom[1]

Male 1769 - 1837  (68 years)

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  • Name Simon Rubottom 
    Born 13 Apr 1769  Chatham County, NC Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Gender Male 
    Census 1790  Moore County, NC Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Census 1810  Chatham County, NC Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Census 1820  Lawrence County, IN Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Census 1830  Parke County, IN Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Died 22 Jul 1837  Parke County, IN Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Buried Bloomingdale, Parke County, IN at Bloomingdale Friends Cemetery Find all individuals with events at this location 
    • 1790 -- Census, Moore County, NC Page 161
      Simon Ruebottom
      (16+) 1M

      1810 -- Census, Chatham County, NC Page 287
      Simon Reubottom
      (26-45) 1M 1F
      (16-25) 1M 1F
      (10-16) 3M 1F
      (0-10) 3M 3F

      1815, Nov 26 -- Paoli Monthly [Quaker] Meeting, Lick Creek Minutes Page 32, Orange County, IN
      Simon Rubottom produced a certificate for himself and sons: namely, George, Thomas, William, Samuel, Ezekial, John and Zeno, from Cain Creek Monthly Meeting on Oct 9, 1815 and was accepted.

      1820 -- Census, Lawrence County, IN Page 142
      Simon Rheubottom
      (45+) 1M 1F
      (16-26) 2M 2F
      (16-18) 1M
      (10-16) 2M 1F
      (0-10) 1M 1F

      1830 -- Census, Parke County, IN Page 92
      Simon Reubottom
      (50-60) 1M 1F
      (15-20) 1F
      (10-15) 1M
    Person ID I16856  Moore County Wallaces
    Last Modified 14 Jun 2016 

    Father Thomas Rubottom,   d. Bef 19 Nov 1793 
    Mother Phebe Dixon 
    Family ID F12814  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

    Family Elizabeth Dunn,   b. 28 Dec 1771,   d. 26 Oct 1844  (Age 72 years)  [2
    Married c1790 
     1. Joseph Rubottom,   b. 4 Sep 1791
     2. Mary Rubottom,   b. 6 Sep 1792
     3. Jane Rubottom,   b. 13 Dec 1793
     4. George Rubottom,   b. 25 Feb 1795
     5. Thomas Rubottom,   b. 6 Mar 1796
     6. Hannah Rubottom,   b. 11 Mar 1798
     7. William Rubottom,   b. 16 Aug 1799
     8. Ruth Rubottom,   b. 16 Jan 1801
     9. Dinah Rubottom,   b. 14 Feb 1802
     10. Samuel Rubottom,   b. 13 Aug 1803
     11. Ezekial Rubottom,   b. 13 Jan 1805
     12. Elizabeth Rubottom,   b. 23 Apr 1807
     13. John Rubottom,   b. 1 Feb 1811
     14. Mahala Rubottom,   b. 12 Feb 1812
     15. Zeno Worth Rubottom,   b. 25 Mar 1815
    Last Modified 13 May 2016 
    Family ID F4762  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

  • Event Map
    Link to Google MapsBorn - 13 Apr 1769 - Chatham County, NC Link to Google Earth
    Link to Google MapsCensus - 1790 - Moore County, NC Link to Google Earth
    Link to Google MapsCensus - 1810 - Chatham County, NC Link to Google Earth
    Link to Google MapsCensus - 1820 - Lawrence County, IN Link to Google Earth
    Link to Google MapsCensus - 1830 - Parke County, IN Link to Google Earth
    Link to Google MapsDied - 22 Jul 1837 - Parke County, IN Link to Google Earth
    Link to Google MapsBuried - - Bloomingdale, Parke County, IN at Bloomingdale Friends Cemetery Link to Google Earth
     = Link to Google Earth 
    Pin Legend  : Address       : Location       : City/Town       : County/Shire       : State/Province       : Country       : Not Set

  • Documents
    1797 Land Grant #1211, Moore County, NC - Simon Rheubottom
    1797 Land Grant #1211, Moore County, NC - Simon Rheubottom
    1797 Land Grant #1323, Moore County, NC - Simon Rheubottom
    1797 Land Grant #1323, Moore County, NC - Simon Rheubottom

  • Sources 
    1. [S136] Rubottom Reminiscin [], Dr. Danene Brown Vincent.

      Simon Rubottom, the eldest son of Thomas and Phebe (Dixon) Rubottom, was born on April 13, 1769 in Orange County, North Carolina. 1 Little is known about his life prior to 1790. Indiana Friends records indicate that he was married to Elizabeth Dunn, daughter of Joseph and Ruth Dunn, around 1790 at Cane Creek Monthly Meeting in North Carolina. 2 Their marriage in the Quaker Church is subject to question because the Cane Creek Monthly Meeting records state that on October 6, 1792, "Elizabeth Rhuebottom (former Dunn) confessed her marriage out of unity." 3 That statement meant that one of the two married a non-Friend, they married in a civil ceremony, or they married without the blessings of the church. The author has not determined the reason for the "marriage out of unity," but suspects that Simon was not a Quaker prior to their marriage.
      In the 1790 U. S. Census, Simon was listed as a head of household living in Fayette District, Moore County, North Carolina. 4 Living with him were two white females. Since his first child, Joseph, was not born until 1791, the other female must have been a relative or a friend. In the First Census of the United States, Heads of Families--North Carolina, the listing for Simon Rubottom and family is immediately before his father, Thomas Rubottom and family. 5 It is likely that Simon and his family lived on land adjacent to his father's land (possibly on his father's land).
      Joseph Rubottom, the first child of Simon and Elizabeth (Dunn) Rubottom, was born on September 4, 1791. 6 One year and two days later, on September 6, 1792, his sister Mary was born. 7
      On September 7, 1793, Simon, his son Joseph, and his daughter Mary were "received by request" by the Cane Creek Monthly Meeting in Orange County, North Carolina. 8
      Simon and Elizabeth had ten more children between December 1793 and April 1807:
      Jane, b. 23-DEC-1793
      George, b. 25-FEB-1795
      Thomas, b. 6-MAR-1796
      Hannah, b. 11-MAR-1798
      William, b.16-AUG-1799
      Ruth, b. 16-JAN-1801
      Dinah, b. 14-FEB-1802
      Samuel, b. 18-AUG-1803
      Ezekiel, b. 13-JAN-1805
      Elizabeth, b. 23-APR-18079
      Mary, their eldest daughter, was reported "married out of unity" on September 2, 1809. 10 She was married to James Dixon sometime prior to that date. Her mother Elizabeth gave birth to two more children following the marriage of James and Mary. John was born on 1-FEB-1811, and Mahala was born 12-FEB-1812. 11
      Between 1812 and 1814, two more of Simon's and Elizabeth's children were married. Joseph, the eldest son, married Hannah Cox, while his sister Jane, the third child, married William Cox. (That William and Hannah Cox were brother and sister is supported by strong evidence, but has not been positively affirmed.) Both couples were reported "married out of unity." 12
      [AUTHOR'S UPDATE: Williamd and Hannah Cox were, in fact, brother and sister. They were the children of William Cox and his wife, Phebe Cox.]

      Zeno, the fifteenth (and final) child, was born to Simon and Elizabeth Rubottom on March 25, 1815. 13
      Simon Rubottom was included as a tax payer in Captain Smith's District of Chatham County, North Carolina in 1815. The tax list stated that he owned 312 acres on Tick Creek and 100 acres in Pine Woods for a total value of $1780. 14
      The Northwest Territory Calls

      After the American Revolution, claims to western lands were revived. Most of the 13 original colonies claimed that their boundaries extended west to the Mississippi River. But because Maryland could lay no such claim, she refused to ratify the Articles of Confederation until the land was turned over to the federal government for developing future states. The process of ceding these western reserves to the federal government took a little over fifteen years.
      The federal government had very little money and believed that profits could be made through the sale of the western lands. Thus, Congress passed the Ordinance of 1785, which provided for the division of western lands into townships and for the auctioning of large pieces of land (townships and sections) in the eastern states. The minimum price was $1.00 per acre. 15
      Two years later the Ordinance of 1787 was set up as the plan of government and political development of the territory. The first section of the ordinance created the "Territory North West of the Ohio," commonly known as the Northwest Territory. It was considered a temporary district that would eventually be divided into not less than three or more than five territories. Section Two of the ordinance put in place a three-stage process for territorial development and eventual statehood. It also established the territory's governmental structure. 16
      The third section of the Ordinance of 1787 was, perhaps, the most noteworthy part because it set forth a bill of rights that guaranteed the people of the Northwest Territory freedom of religious worship, proportional representation, the right to a jury trial, and the privileges of common law. It also laid a basis for education, provided for just dealings with the Indians, and prohibited slavery. 17
      There were many reasons for early Quaker families to migrate to the newly opened Northwest Territory. H. W. Beckwith best describes the conditions which they faced:
      They were men who with strong arms and stout hearts had been endeavoring to snatch a living from the poor and stony soil of (North Carolina), and struggling against the adverse influences of slavery, at that time existing there. That institution interfered to a great extent with the moral and social comforts of the citizens who were unable or unwilling to own slaves, while the slaveholders, being the upper class, wielded such influence in the legislature, and in the administration of public affairs, as to make it uncomfortable and embarrassing to those who objected to it. Hence it was natural that those freedom-loving citizens should be on the outlook for a more congenial place of residence, and that the opening of the northwestern territory which had been dedicated to freedom by the act of 1787, a large exodus should take place. So we find them arriving here with all their possessions in a wagon, happy when they had money enough to enter a piece of land, even if they had not a cent left for future use. 18
      A number of North Carolina Friends came on scouting trips to seek available land in Indiana Territory. In 1806 John Hollowell of Wayne County, North Carolina was credited as being the first person to enter alone into Southern Indiana. He found a small spring and a cave that he made his home. He returned home to North Carolina and a year later brought his family back to Indiana.
      In 1811, Jonathan Lindley led a party of thirty or more who left North Carolina. They arrived in Indiana Territory, where they stopped at the stockade at Half Moon Spring, near Lick Creek, in what is now Orange County. Because of unsettled conditions and Indian unrest, they elected not to push on to what is now Vigo County, as had been originally planned. Instead, they remained at the Lick Creek settlement. 19, 20
      The Lick Creek Monthly Meeting of Friends was set up by the West Branch Quarterly Meeting of Ohio, and it grew rapidly. The first meetings were held on September 25, 1813. Most of the members were received from meetings in North Carolina, Virginia, Tennessee, and Ohio. 21
      Abigail (Hollowell) Spivey and her children Exum, Rebecca, Abigail, and Ephraim came to Lick Creek in Indiana with one of these early groups of settlers. They were issued certificates of transfer on March 3, 1810 from Contentnea Monthly Meeting in Wayne County, North Carolina to Miami Monthly Meeting in Ohio. 22 From the Miami Monthly Meeting they transferred to the Whitewater Monthly Meeting in Wayne County, IN, where their certificates were endorsed for transfer to Lick Creek. 23 Exum Spivey's granddaughter, Sarah Jane Spivey, would later marry Samuel Elisha Rubottom, grandson of Simon Rubottom. 24
      An Account of the Journey from North Carolina to Indiana

      On September 2, 1815, Simon and Elizabeth Rubottom and their family were granted certificates of transfer from Cane Creek Monthly Meeting in Orange County, North Carolina to Lick Creek Monthly Meeting in Indiana. 25 Thus began, on September 8, 1815 a cross country journey through North Carolina and Virginia, over the Blue Ridge Mountains, through the Cumberland Gap, diagonally across Kentucky, into Indiana.
      George Rubottom, the fourth child of Simon and Elizabeth, kept a diary of their travels, intended as a letter to his cousin Nathan Dixon. It is reproduced as written:

      "Journey from North Carolina to Indiana in 34 Days in the Year 1815"
      Letter to Nathan Dixon, Chatham County, Lick Creek, North Carolina:

      Sept. 8 -- Got off from home about 12 oclock, traveled to Scottens and took up. 14 miles. Nothing remarkable passed today.

      Sept. 9-- Left camp at 7, went on well, reached Nathan Lamb's at 3 and made preparations for doctoring the wounded horse. Traveled 15 miles.

      Sept. 10 -- Rested with our friend Nathan Lamb. Horse is considerably better.

      Sept. 11 -- Left our benefactors, went to Zeno Worth's, the wagon that was to join us here did not come according to promise, waited until 12 o'clock then went on about 4 miles and fed. The waggons joined us this evening and we camped at Armfields. 9 miles. The horse continues to mend.

      Sept. 12 -- We continued our journey before sunrise, passed Clemens at 10 oclock. Fed at Deep River, after dinner went on, camped at John Smiths. 21 miles.

      Sept. 13 -- Started about 6 oclock, went on very well, took dinner at 12 then went on, crossed Little Yadkin at twilight, traveled 2 miles further and took up lodging for the night. 24 miles.

      Sept. 14 -- Left camp after sunrise, went on as usual, crossed Tom's Creek about 10 oclock, fed at Flatshore Creek then went on, crossed the Ararat at 6, took up at Thomas Parkins. We had a very considerable shower of rain this evening. Made 18 miles.

      Sept. 15 -- Left camp about sunrise, went on well, fed at the foot of the Blue Ridges. Began the ascent at Ward's Gap at half past 2 oclock. Our teams had tolerable hard drawing. They went up without doubling. When about half way up we had to assist Thomas White, his team wa_? exactly true, but were overloaded. We gained the top after 6, went half a mile and took up lodging. 14 miles.

      Sept. 16 -- Started at half past 6, the road is very hilly and in bad order. Took up at 12 for dinner. Moved on at 2, went till sunset and took up. 15 miles.

      Sept. 17 -- A cloudy morning, several showers of rain fell last night. Started before sunrise, went on very well, reached Pearces Furnice by 10 oclock, viewed it half an hour then went on. At 12 it began to rain, crossed New River at Porter's Ford at about 3 oclock. It continued to rain till night and was very cool. Took up this evening at one Painters who favored us with a room to lodge in. Made 14 miles. (Name may be Pointers.)

      Sept. 18 -- Left Painters, crossed Cripple Creek, went on till 12 and took dinner, then went on. Took up for the night at the head of Cripple Creek. It became clear this evening. Made 19 miles.

      Sept. 19 -- Is frosty morning, set off a quarter before 7, went on as usual. Stopped at the head of the South Fork of Holston for dinner and viewed the curiosities of the place, went into a cave. It has a spacious entrance as large as a common room. In viewing it we found another, the mouth was small. We got a torch and went into it, sometimes we could walk upright, at others, half bent. Viewed its various winding till satisfied and went out. There are several large springs which offered water enough to turn a mill in a short distance. After dinner, went on. Joseph is very unwell, supposed to be cold. Took up at 4 on account of his illness. Made 15 miles.

      Sept. 20 -- A foggy morning. Moved off at 7, went on well. Took dinner at the Seven Mile Ford on Holston, then went on, some showers of rain fell this evening. Took up at 6 at William Lewis who favored us with a room to lodge in. Traveled 20 miles. Joseph is considerable better.

      Sept. 21 -- A rainy morning. Continued our journey at 7. Halted at 1 and fed, then went on. Passed thru Abingdon at 3 oclock. Traveled about 3 miles further and took up. 17 miles. It continued to rain at intervals during the whole of this day.

      Sept. 22 -- Another wet morning. Started before sunrise. Went on well. Halted at half past 11 and fed, then went on, took up at 6. A fair evening. Made 21 miles.

      Sept 23 -- A foggy morning. Moved on at half past 6, went on well till half past 9 when the tire on one of White's waggon wheels broke. Stopped and had it mended, went on again at 12 oclock, took up for the night at the boat yard on Holston. 16 miles.

      Sept. 24 -- Another foggy morning. Went on at 6, crossed the North of Holston at 7. Took dinner at 12, then went on. This evening is clear, stopped at 6 and made preparations for the night. 22 miles.

      Sept. 25 -- This morning is clear, started about 6 oclock, went on well, halted at Rogers Mill half after 8 to have some of our horses' shoes nailed on, then went on, fed at half past 11, then went on, took up at 6. Made 22 miles.

      Sept. 26 -- A finer morning. Set off at 6, passed Bean Station about 10 oclock, went 2 miles and fed, then went on, began to ascend Clinch mountain at the Freestone Gap at 1 oclock. The road for about half way up this mountain is in extreme bad order where we found hands at work, from there to the top it was very good. Gained the top at half past 3 then descended the western declivity. Took lodging at Clinch River. Made 16 miles.

      Sept. 27 -- Rested our teams today. We spent the day in killing squirrels and so forth.

      Sept. 28 -- Packed up our lumber ? and started, crossed Clinch on a bridge which was 150 yards long. Paid 2 dollars for crossing. Went on till 12 and fed, then went on, passed thru Tazwell, seat of justice for Clabourn county. Went till 6 and made preparations for the night. 15 miles.

      Sept. 29 -- Set off at 6, crossed Powell's River this morning, began to ascend Cumberland mountain at 11 oclock, gained the top in half an hour, went on to Yellow Creek and fed, then went on till 6 and took up. 18 miles.

      Sept. 30 -- A foggy morning, moved on at 6, went about 5 miles when we came to the Cumberland Turnpike, paid $2.87 1/2 to have the gate opened, then went on till half past 11 oclock and fed, after dinner went on till sun set and took up, made 20 miles. We had a hard shower of rain today, also a slight one yesterday.

      Oct. 1 Sabbath -- Another foggy morning. Set off at 6, went till 12 and fed. Went on at 1. Took up on Laurel Creek. 19 1/2 miles.

      Oct. 2 -- This morning foggy, set off at 6. Nothing remarkable passed. Fed at 12 oclock, then went on, crossed Little Rock Castle, went over some rough nobs. Crossed Big Rock Castle when it was nearly dark. Drove half a mile and took up. 22 1/2 miles.

      Oct. 3 -- Scarcely a morning passed without fog, continued our journey at 7, went on well, tool dinner at 1 at Mt. Vernon, halted at 6 and made preparations for the night. 18 miles.

      Oct. 4 -- A clear morning, proceeded at 6, passed thru the Crab Orchard at 9, halted at 1 for dinner, then went on a mile to Stanford, waited 2 hours to have White's waggon wheels clamped, then drove 5 miles and took up. 19 1/2 miles.

      Oct. 5 -- Set off before sunrise, passed thru Danville at 9, halted at half past 11 for dinner. Went on again at 1. Passed thru Harodsburg at 3, went on till sunset and took up. 23 miles.

      Oct. 6 -- Started about sunrise, went on well, halted at 12 for dinner then went on. It began to rain about 2 and continued to rain thru the night, sometimes very hard. We found a cabin to lodge us. 20 miles.

      Oct. 7 -- A cloudy morning. Several showers fell last night. Moved on about 7, went on tolerable well tho the road was very slippery. Stopped at half past 12 for dinner then went on, passed thru Shelbyville about 5, went 1 mile and took up, made 20 miles.

      Oct. 8 -- Another cloudy morning. Took up the line of march before sunrise, went on till half after 11 and fed, then went on, passed thru Middletown at 3, took up for the night about 6. Some light showers fell today. Made 21 miles.

      Oct. 9 -- A clear morning. Made an early start, traveled 7 1/2 miles to Lewisville, staid in town till 11 oclock, then went to the river, it took from 1 to 3 oclock to take the waggons over, paid 2 dollars for each waggon ferriage. Then went on about 2 1/2 miles and took up. 14 miles.

      Oct. 10 -- Set off early went on tolerable well. Fed at 12, then went on, took up on Blue River, 22 miles. We have had a long fatigueing journey, but have stood it well, nothing more than a cold to complain of, we are in fine spirits and expect to reach Lick Creek tomorrow.

      Oct. 11 -- Crossed Blue River, went on well, took dinner at 11, then went on. Reached the place of destination before sunset and found the neighbors very unhealthy. Apply to Joel Dixon for particulars concerning the complaint. The expense of the journey from North Carolina to Lick Creek, Indiana is $81.00 including ferriage, bridge tolls, turn pike fees, etc.

      This with ease to Nathan Dixon and neighbors in general, Uncle George and Aunt Molly in particular.

      George Rubottom26

      Descendants in the Indiana/Illinois region have stated that there were 30 wagons on this trip. It is disappointing that George did not list all of the families that made the trip. But many of the families can be inferred from the certificates issued on the same date from the Cane Creek, Spring, and Back Creek Monthly Meetings in North Carolina. They included: Simon and Elizabeth Rubottom, with their children George, Thomas, William, Samuel, Ezekiel, John, Zeno, Hannah, Ruth, Dinah, Elizabeth (Betsey), and Mahala; Simon and Ruth Dixon; John D. Hadley; Catherine Pickard; Abigail Ellis; Soloman and Ruth Stout, with their family; John and Elizabeth Stout, with their family; Robert and Hannah Holaday,with their children Jacob, Henry, Robert, Abigail, Mary, Deborah, Hannah, and Rebecca; and, James and Sarah White with their son Nathan. 27
      It, too, may be concluded that Simon's eldest son Joseph and his family made the trip, since he is mentioned in the letter. Simon's two married daughters, Mary (Rubottom) Dixon and Jane (Rubottom) Cox, their husbands, James Dixon and William Cox, and their children probably also made the journey. This conclusion is made based on the fact that both families were counted in the 1820 Lawrence County, Indiana census. It is possible, of course, that they may have made the journey after 1815, but before 1820.
      Land in Orange and Lawrence Counties

      In 1816 Simon Rubottom entered land in Indian Creek Township, Lawrence County, Indiana. 28 Indian Creek Township is the middle of the three townships which lie on the western border of Lawrence County. It was named for the creek which enters through the northwest corner, curves in a semicircle, and exits through the southwest corner. Much of it being bottom-land soil, it was excellent for agricultural purposes. 29 While in Lawrence County, Simon built a mill along the river. This was the first of many mills that Simon and his descendants would operate in Indiana. 30
      On December 26, 1818 Simon Rubottom bought 160 acres of land in Orange County, Paoli Township. The land description was as follows: Township 1 North, Range 1 East, Section 6, Southwest Quarter. 31 Many of the Friends purchased land in communities together. Within very close proximity to Simon Rubottom was land owned by persons named Lindley, Hadley, Cox, Newlin, Stout, Dixon, Coffin, Pickard, Maris, and Campbell. Most of these persons came from the same areas in North Carolina, and the names were found together for the next eighty years in Indiana, Illinois, Iowa, Nebraska, Kansas, Missouri, and Arkansas records. A number of individuals with these surnames would later marry into the Rubottom family.
      It is not clear whether Simon and his family actually lived on the Orange County land because, in the 1820 Federal Census, they were listed in Lawrence County, Indiana.
      Lick Creek Monthly Meeting

      As was previously discussed, the Lick Creek Monthly Meeting was set up in 1813, and the Rubottoms and Dixons were said to have constituted most of its membership. 32 The meeting house was located near the present William Pitman farm in Indian Creek Township. Priscilla Hunt was the early Quaker preacher. Simon Rubottom was appointed overseer of the church on August 31, 1816 and became an elder on July 31, 1819. 33
      Early Marriages

      Prior to leaving North Carolina, the first three children of Simon and Elizabeth Rubottom had been married. While the family resided in Lawrence County, six additional siblings married and one married a second time.
      The first to be married was Hannah, Simon and Elizabeth's sixth child. She was wed to William Dicks on January 29, 1817 at Lick Creek Monthly Meeting in Orange County, Indiana. 34
      The next two marriages were conducted in North Carolina after two of the sons returned to Cane Creek Monthly Meeting to marry. George Rubottom, the writer of the above described diary/letter, was granted a certificate to Cane Creek Monthly Meeting on October 26, 1816. 35 His brother Thomas Rubottom was granted his certificate to Cane Creek on January 25, 1817. 36 George arrived in Cane Creek on February 1, 1817 and was married to Miriam Dixon on February 16, 1817. 37 Thomas was received in Cane Creek on April 5, 1817 and married Edith Dixon, Miriam's sister, on April 10, 1817. 38 George and Miriam were received back at Lick Creek on May 31, 1817, while Thomas and Edith were received on July 26, 1817. 39 It is not clear whether the two brothers traveled to North Carolina individually or together. Because of the two months difference in dates, it appears that each made the trip separately.
      Three of Simon and Elizabeth's children were married in 1823. Samuel Rubottom, the tenth child, married Louisa Williams on June 26, 1823 in Lawrence County. 40 The eldest child, Joseph Rubottom, married second to Elizabeth Westfall in Greene County on August 14, 1823. 41 (The circumstances regarding the disposition of his first marriage to Hannah Cox are unknown. No record has been located establishing her death or their divorce.) Dinah Rubottom, the ninth child, married Allen Cox on December 24, 1823 in Lawrence County. 42 All three couples were married outside the Quaker church, either through a civil ceremony or in another church.
      [AUTHOR'S UPDATE: A letter written by the late Thomas W. Rubottom on 23-Apr-1983 says that Joseph and Hannah Cox Rubottom were divorced in the first term of court in Lawrence County, IN in 1816. The Chatham County, NC May term of Court of May 1818 awarded custody of Joseph's children, Henry and Hulda Rubottom, to Phebe Cox. Henry was to be under her guardianship until he was twenty-one years of age. Hulda was under her guardianship until age eighteen. Phebe Cox was the mother of Hannah Cox Rubottom and William Cox, who married Jane Rubottom. Hannah Rubottom, former wife of Joseph Rubottom, was listed with her brother Oliver Cox in the 1850 Lawrence County, IN census. She was 62 years of age. Her daughter Hulda was also living with her uncle Oliver Cox. She is listest as Hulda Evans. Henry Rubottom married 1st to Elizabeth Corbin and 2nd to Sarah Baker. He resided most of his life in Greene County, IN.]

      The Society of Friends rules were very strict regarding marriage. First, the Friend was required to marry another Friend. Secondly, the marriage had to be approved by and performed in the church. If either condition was not met, the individuals were subject to disownment by the church. They were allowed the opportunity to "confess their misconduct" and be readmitted to the church. It appears that Dinah must have done this at some point, because she was found listed in later church records.
      Ruth Rubottom, the eighth child, was married to Mahlon Reynolds on January 15, 1825 at Lick Creek Monthly Meeting. 43
      Conscientious Scruples

      Sometime before 1821, the Eighteenth Regiment of the Indiana State Militia was organized in Lawrence County. Due to their strong principles of peace and non-aggression, a number of Friends were released from the performance of military duty, upon the payment of $4 per person. Those persons included George Rubottom, William Rubottom, William Dicks, James Dixon, and Silas Dixon among others. 44
      Establishing A New Home in Parke County

      As the years passed, many new families came to Indiana to obtain land and start new lives. Communities were becoming crowded in certain areas, while, at the same time, new lands were becoming available in other parts of Indiana.
      The push into Parke County began in about 1823. Simon and Elizabeth Rubottom with a number of their children and Thomas and Edith (Dixon) Rubottom with their children were among the first of those settlers, arriving in 1825. They were granted certificates of transfer from Lick Creek Monthly Meeting on August 20, 182545 and were received by Honey Creek Monthly Meeting on September 10th of the same year. 46 (Honey Creek MM was actually located in Vigo County, immediately south of Parke County. Because a meeting had not yet been established in Parke County, the family was required for a short time to travel south to attend their Monthly Meeting.)
      The families settled in Penn Township in Parke County. North Carolina furnished most of the pioneer families who settled in that area.
      The first meeting of the Society of Friends in Parke County was held in the home of Adam Siler in 1825. Friends met there and in the home of Simon Rubottom, until June 5, 1826, when their first meeting-house was erected on the north edge of the cemetery. 47
      In 1826 a request, signed by Adam Siler, Simon Rubottom, Payton Wilson, Jeremiah Siler, Mahlon Reynolds, Jacob Hockett, and Samuel Kelley, was made to Honey Creek Monthly Meeting for a Preparatory Meeting in Parke County. The meeting was established June 5, 1826. 48
      The first meeting-house was made of logs and was about 20 feet square. The work of building the meeting house was shared by all: felling the timbers, hewing the logs, hauling them to the building site, making a puncheon floor and preparing boards for the roof. It is said that Adam Siler was the only man who had a little extra money, so he bought the nails to attach the clapboard roof. 49
      The house was heated by burning charcoal in a basin-shaped hole scooped out in the center of the building. John Rubottom, a blacksmith and the son of Simon Rubottom, was appointed fireman. With a long poker, he occasionally stirred up the coals when the fire began to die down. 50
      In those days, it was customary for men and women to hold separate business meetings, so a wagon cover partition was used to divide the room. This must surely have been inadequate because it was soon abandoned and another method was used. The men would meet and transact their business, then would retire so that the women could do the same. In 1827 another room the same size was built so that the two meetings could be held at the same time. 51
      The first meeting house was called "Elevalus" or "Elevatis" because of the slight elevation of the ground on which it was built. When the request was made to become a monthly meeting, Nathaniel Newlin complained about the existing name and said he wanted something with the name "Bloom" in it. Thus, the name of both the monthly meeting and the nearby village was changed to "Bloomfield." 52 When the town later applied for a post office, it was discovered that a "Bloomfield" already existed in another Indiana county. This resulted in the modified name of Bloomingdale.
      The first burial in the Bloomfield (Bloomingdale) Cemetery was made on November 25, 1826. 53 Times were very difficult, and because medical knowledge was so limited, there were many burials in those early years. Three Rubottom grandchildren, before the age of two, and one daughter-in-law, were laid to rest in that cemetery between 1828 and 1830. 54
      On July 11, 1827, Ezekiel Rubottom, the eleventh child of Simon and Elizabeth Rubottom, was received by Honey Creek Monthly Meeting from Lick Creek. He was married to Jane Coate on September 12, 1827. 55 The following is an abstract of their marriage certificate shown in the Honey Creek Monthly Meeting records: 56
      Ezekiel Rubottom, of Elevatis Settlement in Parke Co, IN, s of Simon & Elizabeth
      Jane Coate, dt of William & Elizabeth of the same place

      at Elevatis Meetinghouse
      Mary Mote Simon Rubottom
      Mary Hoggatt Elizabeth Rubottom
      Hannah Wilson William Coate
      John Commons Elizabeth Coate
      Thomas Rubottom Ruth Reynolds
      Samuel Haworth Mary Kelly
      Warner Davis Mahala Rubottom

      John Rubottom

      Samuel Kelly

      Samuel Rubottom

      Nathaniel Newlin

      Mahlon Reynolds

      Jer. W. Siler

      Betty Holaday
      The Bloomfield Monthly Meeting was established on December 1, 1827, by an order of the Blue River Quarterly Meeting, dated at Lick Creek, Orange County on October 27, 1827. 57 Mahlon Reynolds, Jesse Hockett, and James Siler were the first representatives to the yearly meeting from Bloomfield. 58 Mahlon Reynolds was a son-in-law of Simon and Elizabeth Rubottom. The three representatives had been appointed to receive and report accounts of sufferings to the meeting. The "sufferings" originated from fines collected by law from members in indigent circumstances for non-conformance to the military laws of the state. At that time and for several years afterward, the state law required all able-bodied men between the ages of eighteen and forty-five to muster at stated periods or on call of the proper officers. Failure to do so was punishable by fine. The Friends were annoyed by the loss of indispensable articles, taken in lieu of fines, which the poorer members were unable to replace. After this was brought to the attention of the yearly meeting, relief was provided for the distressed by the yearly meeting itself. 59
      A Division in the Church

      Another serious problem for the early Friends across America was a difference in doctrinal opinion, which caused a widespread church separation under the leadership of Elias Hicks. The new sect of Friends were called Hicksites. Although the Hicksite movement began much earlier than the settlement in Parke County, it did not reach Indiana until about 1828.
      In 1851, the quarterly meeting entered into a contract with Barnabas Coffin Hobbs to serve as principal of their school. During his tenure he wrote a paper outlining what he believed to be the causes of the Hicksite Separation. It reads as follows:
      "The Causes Which Led to the Hicksite Separation"
      by Prof. B. C. Hobbs

      "Sixty years ago the New Testament was common as a school book, but a complete copy of the Bible was not often to be found in the families of Friends. When read it was not expected to be explained except by ministers, and as a consequence there was a great indefiniteness in the religious opinions of too many on doctrinal subjects.
      They accepted the opinions of those in whom they had confidence when they were positively asserted, and capable and plausible men had great influence in society.
      The Society of Friends at this time was distinguished, as it ever has been, for benevolence, temperance, and the social virtues. They were practical Christians. This lack of establishment in Christian faith rendered the hearts of too many a favorable soil for the seeds of heresy to take root and bring forth evil.
      About the years 1818 to 1825-8, Elias Hicks, a man who embraced in his character the appearance, language, and manners of the straightest of his sect, and was most sympathetic and benevolent toward the poor, the afflicted, and the oppressed, was known to advance sentiments which undervalued the mediatorial offices and atoning merits of Christ. He often spoke of Him as only a good man. That the Holy Spirit was in Him as it is in us; that His death and sufferings on Calvary were of no value to us only as an example in a devoted life; that His blood was only a metaphor meaning His life or the life of the Holy Spirit. He denied the existence of a devil or an evil agent apart from man's passions, and taught that we are all by nature like Adam in the creation, and fall like he did; that the account in Genesis of the creation, the fall of our first parents, and the garden of Eden, were figurative and unreal; that we must be saved alone by the Holy Spirit in us; and that the scriptures were not all inspired; such as were written by inspiration of God are to be believed; such as were not are of no more binding authority than other books; and that each must judge for himself.
      His plausible and winning measures and persuasive eloquence led many unsuspecting men and women astray. Many saw the error of his teaching from the beginning, and gave timely warning. Some took one side and some the other. The controversy waxed earnest, and culminated in a separation, in 1828, in several yearly meetings in America, beginning in New York and ending in Indiana. Meetings, families, and friends were divided. Wounds were made never to be healed. Some were led on in the separation by their love of a libertine faith, while others were influenced by the strong ties of friendship and social relations.
      There are some still living who can remember the work of the dark angel. Such refer to it with sad hearts.
      The effects of this separation were, however, not without some good. It stirred up the whole society to an earnest searching for the faith once delivered to the saints, and from that day to this the Society of Friends have held a sound faith in the doctrines of redemption by the blood of the Lord Jesus and by the spirit of our God." 60
      Although the Hicksite movement caused major convulsions among the Quakers across the country, there was little effect within Parke County, Indiana. The Indiana yearly meeting had prepared a paper, outlining their traditional doctrinal beliefs that was read at the Bloomfield Monthly Meeting on March 1, 1828. At the same meeting, the members confirmed its acceptance and the paper was endorsed. 61
      The Rubottoms--Their Land and Their Work

      About 1827 Simon Rubottom build a crude grist mill along the bank of Leatherwood Creek in Section 23 of Penn Township. 62 His millwright was an old man named Anthony. The mill was used for only a short time. Apparently, the site was later used for other mills. A good description of Simon's mill was provided by Beckwith:
      The machinery consisted of an undershot wheel and one run of burrs . . . each burr in a single piece without any plaster about them. The bolt was a single reel, twelve or fourteen feet long, enclosed in a chest, and was operated by hand. The flour, middlings and shorts, fell into the chest, the bran coming out at the end. The miller separated the flour, middlings and shorts with a wooden shovel, the former being afterward carried upstairs in a half-bushel measure to the bolting hopper. The building was a rough affair, constructed of logs, without chinking or daubing, and no floor except a little around the hopper. When a fire was needed, it was made on the ground, and the smoke allowed to escape through the cracks. 63
      The first blacksmiths in Penn Township were John Rubottom, Jack Husband, and Thomas Woody. 64 John Rubottom was the thirteenth of Simon Rubottom's children. During that period, the common smith was expected to make edged tools, such as axes, chisels, drawing-knives, and adzes as well as making horseshoes and repairing all types of ironwork. In those days, they were very frugal with iron and steel. Wagons were constructed with as little metal as possible. Horseshoes were made by splitting wide bars of iron into pieces one inch wide, one-half inch thick, and seven or eight inches long, depending on the horse's size. They were afterward rounded and fitted to the horse. Nails used to affix the horse's shoes were usually made from old shoes or worn-out tires. The price for shoeing a horse was about 62-1/2 cents, if the owner supplied the iron, and $1 to $1.25 if it was supplied by the smith. 65
      A New School and A New Church

      A subscription school of hewed logs was built in 1830 near where the current Friends Church now stands in Bloomingdale. It had two brick chimneys, glass windows, and a floor of sawed lumber. The subjects taught included reading, spelling, writing, arithmetic, and geography. English grammar was offered only at recess because many Friends objected to its teaching. 66
      The Bloomfield Friends decided to build a second church in 1832. In April 1833 a building committee was formed to make plans for the church. It was to be 35' by 70' and 10-1/2' from floor to ceiling, and would cost about $650. The church was completed in 1834. 67
      In Other Counties

      While some of Simon and Elizabeth Rubottom's children had joined them in their relocation to Parke County, others sought their own lives and their own land in other parts of southwestern Indiana and southeastern Illinois. All, however, were within travelling distance of Parke County.
      Joseph, the eldest child, lived in Orange County in 1820. 68 In 1830 he was listed in the Parke County Census living very near his father. 69 Between 1830 and 1840, he and his family settled in Greene County, Indiana, 70 where he, his wife Elizabeth, and his children remained until about 1851 when they made a final move to Clark County, Illinois. 71
      In 1820, Mary (Rubottom) Dixon and her husband James Dixon lived next to Simon Rubottom in Lawrence County. 72 They were living in Parke County in 1840. 73 By 1850, they had moved to Crawford County, Illinois, 74 along with her sister Hannah (Rubottom) Dix and family, 75 and her brother Zeno Rubottom and family. 76
      Jane (Rubottom) Cox and her husband William Cox resided in Lawrence County in 182077 and remained there for the duration of their lives. They reared a large family and some of their descendants remain in Lawrence County, Indiana today.
      George Rubottom moved to Morgan County, Indiana early in 1825. He and his second wife, Elizabeth (Doan) Rubottom, were granted a certificate of transfer from Lick Creek Monthly Meeting on December 12, 1824, 78 and were received by the White Lick Monthly Meeting on February 12, 1825. 79 White Lick Monthly Meeting was set off from the Lick Creek Monthly Meeting and held its first meeting on August 9, 1823. 80 The church was located in Brown Township, near Mooresville. George and Elizabeth (Doan) Rubottom were among the earliest members of the church and the community, along with her parents, Jonathan and Rachel Doan, and many of her brothers and sisters. George and Elizabeth settled in Monroe Township, one of the oldest parts of Morgan County. The good tract of rolling land was a rich sandy loam, well-suited for farming. George Rubottom was included as a Morgan County tax payer in 1842. 81
      Samuel Rubottom, the tenth child and fifth son of Simon and Elizabeth, lived in Lawrence County with or near his parents in 1820. It appears that he, too, moved to Parke County sometime in the 1820's as he is listed there in the 1830 U.S. Census. Samuel appears to have had a very difficult life. As mentioned earlier, he married Louisa Williams, a young lady from a very prominent family in Lawrence County, on June 26, 1823. Louisa died in Parke County on November 22, 1830 of "milk sickness," a complication following childbirth. 82 Samuel must have returned to Lawrence County following Louisa's death, as he married second to Deniza Evans on May 15, 1831. 83 No information has been obtained about their marriage or whether they had any children. However, it seems that Deniza, too, must have died because Samuel was married for the third time to Deborah Evans on April 10, 1836. 84 No relationship between Deniza and Deborah has yet been proven. In the 1840 U. S. Census, Samuel lived in Lawrence County with a female (presumed his wife) age 20 to 30, a boy under five, and a girl under five. 85 On September 26, 1847, Samuel was married to his fourth wife, Mahala Wyrick, in Clark County, Illinois. 86 They resided in Clark County in the 1850 U.S. Census. 87 Samuel died December 3, 1860 and was buried in Auburn Cemetery in Clark County, Illinois. 88
      It was nearly impossible for the author to identify the children of Samuel Rubottom. Each census indicated that children resided in his household. But the children were not listed by name in the U.S. Census until 1850. Because Samuel was not active in the Quaker faith, his children are not found listed in those records either. Caleb Rubottom was located living with another family in the 1850 U.S. Census, Lawrence County, Indiana, 89 where Samuel had lived until the late 1840s. He is of the correct age to have been Samuel's son; however, no substantiating evidence has been found.
      (AUTHOR'S NOTE: The following section on John Rubottom was updated and rewritten in July 1999.) John Rubottom, third great grandfather of the author, lived in Parke County with his parents for a few years working as a blacksmith. On July 4, 1830 he married Anna Fisher in Lawrence County.90 In the 1840, 1850, and 1860 censuses, he and his family were found residing in Greene County, Indiana where he farmed and, like his father, worked as a blacksmith and gunsmith. John's eldest son Simon D. Rubottom died on November 6, 1861 of Camp Measles while serving in Company D, 14th Indiana Infantry. By 1863, John and Anna had moved their remaining family to Hutsonville, Crawford County, Illinois. Unfortunately, in 1865 their second son, John P. V., also died of Camp Measles while sering with Company C, 155th Illinois Infantry. They stayed in Illinois until 1867, when in hopes of improving John's failing health, the family moved south to Benton County, Arkansas.
      The family's move to Benton is well-documented at the National Archives in a thick folder of pension records filed by Anna Fisher Rubottom on her unmarried son, Simon D. Rubottom. In an affidavit filed on June 12, 1889, Joseph C. Cox, owner of the Elkhorn Tavern, made the following statement:
      "The first time I ever seed John Rubottom was in the fall of 1867 at a place in this county called Twelve Corners. They was encamped at the time he said to rest for his health. They was among the few first comers from the North. In a few days he came to the mountain just west of me and selected him a homestead in less than one mile of where I lived then and now as I have lived at the same place thirty three years known as the Elk Horn Tavern. He had logs cut as he was not able to cut them himself and haled them together in the woods and the neighbors went in and helped him or raised a home for him for he did not help do it. For I remember that Mr. John Rubottom and my father Jesse Cox both old and feable sat under a Jack Oak tree. Mr. Rubottom would pack us watter for us while we put up the house and further I testify that I saw him ever week or two. He was often at home and during the year 1868 he put up a shop--a turning lather and a sort of a set of gun smith tools. I was often at his shop during the time he lived. Some times he could work and some times he could not work. He was very poor. He was at no time able to do half a man's work. He died in the Spring of 1869. Mrs. Anna Rubottom his widow has lived near me ever since and has not remarried and is very poor but work all she was able to to support herself and dather Sarah she being a helpless crible (sic) from her birth."
      Another affidavit filed on the same day by Mahala Cox, also from Elkhorn Tavern, adds the following:
      "I became acquainted with John Rubottom and his wife Anna Rubottom in the year 1867 or 1868. Mr John Rubottom died in the Spring 1869. I was at his house during his last sickness. They was very poor people with daughter who was a criple from her birth. Mrs. Anna Rubottom and her daughter Sarrah has lived by there laber for they had no income only what they work for. They have worked for me a great many times in diferent ways peacing quilts and kniting woollen yarn into socks and stockings. I paid them in meat and cloth to make them clothes of and other things."
      John Rubottom, who suffered from severe rheumatism and asthma, died on May 12, 1869, only two years after his arrival in Benton County. The author found his grave at Twelve Corners Cemetery in Benton County. It is marked only by a large sandstone rock that was roughly etched with his name and death date. Undoubtedly, this was done by his only surviving son, Samuel Elisha Rubottom. As stated above, his wife and family continued to live on the Pea Ridge Mountain following his death. Anna Rubottom's request for a mother's pension, first filed in 1878, was finally approved September 27, 1889. Unfortunately, Anna had died July 15, 1889, one month and three days after Joseph and Mahala Cox filed their affidavits.
      The Passing of Simon Rubottom

      Simon Rubottom, the father who led his fifteen children and their families on the long journey from North Carolina to Indiana, died on July 22, 1837, of asthma at the age of 68 years, 3 months, and 9 days. He was laid to rest in the Bloomingdale Friends Cemetery. 91 His will was probated August 7, 1837 and reads as follows: 92
      Know all men by these present that I Simon Rubottom of the county of Parke, and State of Indiana, being of sound mind do make and ordain this to be my last will and testament in manner and form following to wit; In the first place my will and desire is that all my just debts and contracts be punctually paid, And secondly that my wife Elizabeth, if she should survive me should have her support and comfortable mentenance (sic) during her life time off of my real estate, and my desire is that my executors hereinafter named, may faithfully and punctually see thereto; And thirdly as I have gave to all my sons what I allowed for their apportionment of my estate, it being about one hundred and seventy five dollars each, except to my sons John and Zeno Rubottom, and to my son John I give and bequeth (sic) my gunsmith tools, exclusive of the blacksmith tools, to make him up equal in apportionment with the other my sons and to my son Zeno I give and bequeth the real estate that I now own subject to my wife Elizabeth mentenance (sic) during her life time, as specified heretofore, it being the, the (sic) east half of the Southeast quarter of Section twenty three Town Sixteen, N of Range eight West and also the southwest half of west half of southwest quarter of Section twenty four, the same Town and Range as heretofore specified, with all the improvements that is or may hereafter be affixed thereon; And I have heretofore gave to each and every one of my daughters what I allowed to be their apportionment it being about one hundred and thirty dollars each except to my daughter Hannah, wife of William Dix, to her I will and bequeath the sum of ten dollars, to make her up square with my other daughters. And my will and desire is that all the balance of my estate notes, money and effects that I may have in my possession at the time of my decease that is not heretofore disposed of to be held by my executors, to this my last will and testament, for the use and benefit of Elizabeth my wife, and Semira my grand daughter, who I have raised, during my wife's natural life, and then my will and desire is that Semira shall have one hundred dollars worth of said property provided there be that amount, and if there be not that amount, for her to have all there is for her own benefit and behoof (sic) forever and if there is more than one hundred dollars worth of property, money or effects for my wife to have the disposal of the overplus as she thinks best, and in ascertaining the amount of property to set off to Semira, to make up her hundred dollars. I wish for my executors to select two disinterested men, to value the same, and their jugment (sic) and valuation thereof to be final. And lastly I request, make and appoint Mahlon Reynolds, and Ezekiel Rubottom, executors to this my last will & testament and request them to see that this my will be punctually complied with. In testimony whereof I have hereunto set my hand this the 20th day of 5th month in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and thirty seven.
      Simon Rubottom
      Jeremiah H. Siler William Pickard
      Simon Rubottom left a perplexing situation by mentioning his granddaughter Semira, whom he raised in his home. She was never mentioned in the Quaker records. The only other evidence of Semira is a marriage certificate found at the Parke County Courthouse, when she and Allen Middleton were married on March 5, 1846. 93 A possible clue is found in the Bloomfield Meeting Records. On February 2, 1828, Simon and Elizabeth's daughter, Elizabeth, was complained of for having an illegitimate child. 94 If this was the child reared by Simon and Elizabeth, she would be about the age of 10 at Simon's death, and would have been about 18 at her marriage. Again, the author admits that this is simply conjecture at this point.
      A Concern for Education

      The Society of Friends had a great concern for the education of their children. Reports from the Education Committee were given at various quarterly meetings. The Friends concern for education extended beyond their own subscription schools. Some schools were under the authority of townships, but under the care of Friends. They were also concerned that children of color were receiving a proper education. For this reason they made a census at times of children of color and made inquiries as to their educational opportunities.
      The Education Committee was very selective about their teachers. The teachers were carefully watched that their walks of life, including both dress and address, were in accordance with Friends' ideals.
      The Underground Railroad

      The Society of Friends held a belief that all persons were created equal, that freedom was a birthright of every individual. For this reason, they were especially active in the anti-slavery movement. Moving from the southern slave states to new "Northwest" did not stop their anti-slavery work.
      In Guilford, North Carolina, Vestal Coffin began, in 1819, what became known as the "Underground Railroad," an organization that assisted runaway slaves on their way to Canada. Vestal Coffin's cousin in Indiana, Levi Coffin, became the chief Quaker in this effort and was known as the President of the organization. They devised clever systems and routes to move slaves to freedom through Ohio, Indiana, and Michigan. The routes were called "underground" because they were conducted at night to avoid pursuit. During the day, the escaped slave was secreted in or around the home of a sponsor until the next nightfall. Most of these were Quaker homes and were called "stations."
      Not all Friends agreed with this method of freeing slaves because it posed a moral dilemma. While they were openly opposed to slavery and took great efforts to act out their beliefs, they were also opposed to "deviousness." The anti-slavery work was conducted in secrecy, appearing to promote the value of falsehoods. Thus, Quakers were split in their vocal support of this work. 95
      Many of the Quakers, and some non-Quakers known as Abolitionists, did agree to assist the runaway slaves, although only a few were actually members of the organization called "the Underground Railroad." 96
      The leading members in Morgan County were Jonathan Doan and his sons and relatives. They were known to take many a runaway to another station in Marion or Hendricks County. On one trip they took a load of five persons northward. 97 George Rubottom, who also resided in Morgan County, was Jonathan Doan's son-in-law. He and his wife Elizabeth (Doan) were likely involved in the underground efforts.
      Friends in Parke County had two main underground railroad stations: the Coffin home near Annapolis and the Alfred Hadley home north of the railroad underpass on Highway 41. There is an inaccessible marker on the west side of the road commemorating their work. 98
      The Second Wave of Migration

      The first stage of westward migration began with the Ordinance of 1787, which opened up the Northwest Territory as far west as the Mississippi River. The Louisiana Purchase from the French in 1803 opened lands beyond the river toward the expansive west. Following this purchase came the second wave of mass migration.
      Many wagon trains, filled with all the family possessions, and accompanied by herds of cattle, crossed the Mississippi and moved into Iowa Territory. Between 1850 and 1860 the population of Iowa grew from 192,000 to 675,000. This was followed soon by expansion into Nebraska and Kansas.
      The first Quaker to enter Iowa, in 1835, was Isaac Pidgeon with his wife and seven children. 99 They were followed shortly afterwards by Aaron Street and his family, then Peter Boyer and his family. They established homes near present-day Salem. The men were determined to start a Quaker community in Iowa. 100
      The first meeting for worship was held in the home of Henry W. Joy. 101 In 1838 the first monthly meeting was set off by Vermillion Quarterly Meeting of the Indiana Yearly Meeting. The members of the committee appointed by the Vermillion Quarterly Meeting to begin the new meeting were Abraham Holaday, Thomas Rubottom, Jeremiah H. Siler, Henry Pickard, and Achsah Newlin. The meeting was opened under the following minute: "Salem Monthly Meeting of Friends, first opened and held in Salem, Henry County, Iowa Territory, on the 8th day of the 10th Month 1838." They then held the first Quaker meeting west of the Mississippi River. 102
      A sizable number of Rubottom descendants and other Quaker families participated in this westward expansion. While there were a few Quaker settlements in Illinois, it appeared as though the Quakers simply jumped over the great farmlands of Illinois in their move toward the west.
      George Rubottom, a number of his children, and a daughter of Thomas Rubottom relocated in Iowa between 1850 and 1860. The families included: George and Elizabeth Rubottom, with their children Jesse and Ervina; Sophia (Rubottom) Doan and her children; Levi and Louisa Amanda (Thompson) Rubottom and children; Farlow and Jane Rubottom and children; Simon Dunn and Sarah (Ballard) Rubottom and children; and, Carver and Lucinda (Rubottom) Benbow and children. It appears that many of the children remained in Iowa for a number of years, as they were tracked through census searches up through 1900.
      Many descendants of Simon and Elizabeth Rubottom continued the drive west and southwest. Their progression was found in Missouri, Arkansas, Oklahoma, Texas, California and Oregon records.
      The Civil War

      Most United States citizens by 1860 knew that trouble between the North and the South had reached the boiling point. Sectional differences over issues of slavery had worsened substantially over the years. By the first of February 1861, seven southern states had seceded from the Union.
      Abraham Lincoln was inaugurated as President of the United States on March 4, 1861. He was soon required to deal with the issue of protecting federal forts in seceded states. A resolution was drawn up to evacuate all of the federal troops from those forts, except those at Key West and Tortugas. Ships were soon in route to Fort Sumpter at Charleston, South Carolina. Word of this initiated firing upon the fort, and on April 12, 1861, the fort fell. The Civil War had begun.
      It has been well-established that the Society of Friends were staunch peacemakers and were adamantly opposed to any kind of war. But it posed a grave moral dilemma for some, because they were equally as opposed to slavery. For that and other reasons, there were a fair number of Quaker men who enrolled in the Volunteer Army to serve in the Civil War. Additionally, some of the Rubottom descendants by this time had left the Quaker church to join other denominations and were not bound by these anti-military constraints.
      The Rubottom men who enlisted in the Union Army are as follows:

      Indiana Volunteer Army103
      Alphonzo Rubottom, son of Laban and Anna (Hill) Rubottom, served in Company G, 133rd Indiana Infantry, as a private.
      [AUTHOR'S UPDATE: Alphonzo Rubottom was the son of Laban and Anna Hill Rubottom, grandson of Thomas and Edith Dixon Rubottom, and great-grandson of Simon and Elizabeth Dunn Rubottom. Alphonzo claimed and received an Invalid's Pension in 1897. Following his death in 1905, his wife Luella Siler Rubottom filed a pension claim as guardian of his minor children. There are numerous important records contained in this pension file. They may be found at the National Archives under the following numbers: Invalid's Appl. # 1193873, Cert. #991321 (filed June 30, 1897 from MO) and Minor's Appl. # 837636, Cert. # 611273 (filed Nov. 6, 1905 from MO). Surgeon's reports in Alphonzo's later life state that he was about 5'9" or 5'10" in height, weighed about 142 pounds, had dark complexion, black hair, and black eyes. Although he was married in Parke County, IN, at the time he filed his pension claim, he was living in Jackson County, MO very near Kansas City.]

      Caleb Rubottom, son of Ezekiel and Jane (Coate) Rubottom, served in Company K, 43rd Indiana Infantry, as a corporal.
      [AUTHOR'S UPDATE: Caleb Rubottom has pension records on file at the National Archives. I do not have copies of these records, but do have the following information from the pension record index:

      Rubottom, Caleb
      Widow: Sarah F. Rubottom
      Service: K 43 Ind. Inf.
      Invalid's Appl. # 347677, Cert. # 243218 (filed Mar. 11, 1880 --no state listed)
      Widow's Appl. #1082740, Cert. # 843442 (filed Oct. 27, 1916 from MO)]

      Hiram D. Rubottom, son of William and Salome (Cosner) Rubottom, served in Company A, 14th Indiana Infantry, as a private.
      [AUTHOR'S UPDATE: Hiram D. Rubottom has pension records on file at the National Archives. I do not have copies of these records, but do have the following information from the pension record index:

      Rubottom, Hiram D.
      Widow: Phebe A. Rubottom
      Service: A 14 Ind. Inf.
      Invalid's Appl. # 486560, Cert. # 781502 (filed Jun. 11, 1883 from IN)
      Widow's Appl. # 604242, Cert. # 411643 (filed Nov. 2, 1894 from IN)]

      James R. Rhubottom, parents unknown, served in Company A, 1st Indiana Heavy Artillery, as a corporal/private.

      Mahlon Rubottom, son of Joseph and Elizabeth (Pickard) Rubottom, served in Company A, 85th Indiana Infantry, as a private.
      [AUTHOR'S UPDATE: Mahlon Rubottom has pension records on file at the National Archives. I have an incomplete copy of these records, obtained under the following information from the pension record index:

      Rubottom, Mahlon.
      Widow: Margaret E. Rubottom
      Service: A 85 Ind. Inf.
      Invalid's Appl. # 472934, Cert. # 272418 (filed Feb. 19, 1883 from IN)
      Widow's Appl. # 727446, Cert. # 523794 (filed Sep. 9, 1900 from IN)]

      Pleasant Luther Rubottom, son of Zeno and Eleanor (Dixon) Rubottom, served in Company K, 43rd Indiana Infantry, as a private.
      [AUTHOR'S UPDATE: Pleasant Luther Rubottom has pension records on file at the National Archives. I do not have copies of these records, but do have the following information from the pension record index:

      Rubottom, Pleazent L.
      Widow: Mary J. Rubottom
      Service: K 43 Ind. Inf.
      Invalid's Appl. # 991932, Cert. # 718915 (filed Feb. 18, 1891 from Nebraska)
      Widow's Appl. # 1094076, Cert. # 836526 (filed Feb. 17, 1917 from Nebraska)]
      [AUTHOR'S UPDATE: 1/28/00, Michael Gompert, a descendant of Plezent Luther Rubottom, wrote to the National Archives for a copy of the Civil War Pension Records of Plezent Rubottom. He provided the following information: "Plezent was 5 foot 8 and 1/2 inches tall at enlistment, had light hair and complexion, blue eyes, and his occupation was farming. Plezent's pension was given to him after being diagnosed with rheumatism, heart problems, and hearing loss. Several pages were devoted to proving the marriage between he and his wife. They must not have had a hard copy of a marriage license or found any record of it anywhere. They had to find a couple of people who would vouch for their marriage. Plezent, as it was written and how he signed his signature was enrolled at Indianapolis, IN on the 3rd of October, 1864 and honorably discharged June 14, 1865."]

      Simon Rubottom, son of John and Anna (Fisher) Rubottom, served in Company D, 14th Indiana Infantry, as a private. He died November, 1861, in Huttonville, Virginia.
      [AUTHOR'S UPDATE: Simon Rubottom was the brother of John P.V. Rubottom and Samuel E. Rubottom listed below in the Illinois Volunteer Army section. He was the son of John Rubottom, who was 13th child of Simon and Elizabeth Dunn Rubottom. Simon mustered into the service on 07-Jun-1861 in Terre Haute, IN. In late June 1861 Simon became ill with Camp Measles at Indianapolis, IN. But according to the record provided by his captain, it was not apparent that he had measles until the 6th of July 1861, at which time the Regiment was enroute to Virginia. On 6-Jul-1861, Simon was left at Bellaire, OH where he was hospitalized. He later was sent home to his family in Greene County, IN. He died at his home on or about 5-Nov-1861 of consumption, a complication of the measles. On Mar. 23,1878, Simon's mother Anna Fisher Rubottom filed a Mother's Application for Army Pension (Appl. #236,117, Cert.# 260,141). The pension record is extremely thick and provides incredible documentation for the John and Anna Fisher Rubottom family. Interestingly, Mrs. Anna Rubottom, a widow at the time she filed the Mother's Pension Application, spent nearly eleven years backtracking and obtaining documentation for every place she had lived (IN, IL and AR). She finally was granted a Mother's pension on 27-Sep-1889, two months after she died on 15-Jul-1889. At some point, I intend to put this Pension Record online.]

      Zeno Rubottom, son of William and Salome (Cosner) Rubottom, served in Company H, 21st Regiment, 1st Indiana Heavy Artillery, as a private.
      [AUTHOR'S UPDATE: Zeno Rubottom was the son of William and Salome Cosner Rubottom and grandson of Simon and Elizabeth Dunn Rubottom. Zeno claimed and received an Invalid Army Pension in 1871. His pension records (Appl. # 145519, Cert. # 110970 filed July 7, 1869) provide the following information: At Blair's Landing on Red River, Louisiana, while loading a siege gun during the engagement, a musket ball glanced from the tire of the gun carriage and hit him in the right thigh in front and just a little below the groin cutting to the bone. He was treated in Barracks Hospital, New Orleans, LA for his wound from on or about the 22nd day of April 1864 until the 11th of May 1864 when he was furloughed and came home. His time had expired before he could go back to his Regiment. He was honorably discharged the 31st of July 1864. At the time of the pension application, he was described as 36 years of age, 5'6-1/2" in height, with fair complexion, hazel eyes, and brown hair. His occupation was engineer at the time of his enrollment in the service. Following his service in the Civil War, he worked part-time clerking in a store, then worked in a flouring and saw mill. While his pension in quite lengthy due to many medical records, there does not appear to be any mention of a wife or children in the records. His pension claim was dropped due to his death listed in the record as 9-Jan-1912.]

      Illinois Volunteer Army104
      John P. V. Rubottom, son of John and Anna (Fisher) Rubottom, served in Company C, 155th Illinois Infantry, as a private.

      [AUTHOR'S UPDATE: John P. V. Rubottom was the brother of Samuel E. Rubottom listed immediately below. He was the son of John Rubottom, who was 13th child of Simon and Elizabeth Dunn Rubottom. John P. V. enlisted on 16-Feb-1865 in Olney, IL. His Company Muster Roll sheet says he was 22-1/2 years of age, was a blacksmith, and met the following description: grey eyes, light hair, light complexion, 5' 6" in height. John P. V. died in the hospital at Tullahoma, TN on March 28/29m, 1865 of Camp Measles/pneumonia. On June 10, 1865, his widow, Elizabeth Ayers Rubottom, filed a Widow's Claim for Pension (Appl. # 97486, Cert. # 54,989), which in on file at the National Archives. She was granted a widow's pension of $8.00 per month commencing March 30, 1865.]

      Samuel E. Rubottom, son of John and Anna (Fisher) Rubottom, served in Company C, 155th Illinois Infantry, as a private.
      [AUTHOR'S UPDATE: Samuel was the only one of the three sons of John and Anna Fisher Rubottom who survived his service in the Union Army. His Compiled Service Record provides the following information: Samuel E. Rubottom volunteered at Olney, Ill. Feb. 16th, 1865 by Capt. J. C. Scott, 11th Dist. of Ill., for a term of one year. He was 18 and 2/12 years old, was born in Greene Co, IN, and was a farmer by occupation. He was described as having grey eyes, light hair, light complexion, and was 5' 8" in height. He was mustered out Sept. 4, 1865 after having served in Murfreesboro and Tullahoma, TN.]

      Iowa Volunteer Army105
      Jesse Rubottom, son of George and Elizabeth (Doan) Rubottom, served in Co

    2. [S136] Rubottom Reminiscin [], Dr. Danene Brown Vincent.